Friday, December 13, 2019
In this article, Roy and Therin present the results of an empirical study investigating the relationship between an enterpriseÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge acquisition activities and its environmental commitment. The article identifies past research related to knowledge acquisition and environmental commitment and informs the reader that although much as been written about this subject businesses remain confused about how to adopt these environmental considerations. This study shows to be significant, practical and the results could be utilized in real-world business applications. We will write a custom essay sample on Quatitative Research Article Critique or any similar topic only for you Order Now The literature review was comprehensive, up to date and well organized. The authors were able to identify and relate previous research to the current problem. The review identifies many different ideas from a variety of sources all of which relate to the problem statement. Activities specific to environmental issues should offer SMEs valuable knowledge to support their efforts towards a greater environmental commitment (Revel and Rutherfoord, 2003; Simpson et al. 2004) shows how an environmental relationship can help an enterprise. Also read thisÃ Critique of Stuff Is Not Salvation The study identifies four questions of focus to determine if small and medium enterprises (SMEs) can be evaluated on how their knowledge network relates to environment commitment. A hypothesis is established, expecting that firms that are more involved in regular scanning activities will demonstrate a higher level of environmental commitment The methodology is clearly outlined in the study; the desired population was SMEs from six different manufacturing sectors identified using the Quebec Industrial Research Center database. Since these companies face direct involvement with environment issues they should be motivated to respond with un-biased and truthful responses. The data was gathered using phone interviews with senior administrators carried out by a specialized survey firm. The questions given in the survey were measured by the responders perception of the knowledge management processes and the answers were evaluated using Likert-type scales. The research compiles results and uses the information to classify the enterprises as low or high environmental commitment. Since the study could result in a positive or negative effect to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s business to can be questioned whether the responses can be completely valid. The authors provided precisely tabulated graphic and narrative evidence used to support the problem statement. Tables containing the various enterprise categories and their environmental commitment levels were provided and are easily understood. The sample consisted of 136 businesses and t tests were performed on independent samples and the significance levels were identified. All of the acquired results are closely related to the study questions and the information is interpreted accurately. This study confirms the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s hypothesis and provided excess information related to the subject. The authors did recognize the need to preform further research in order to better understand the relationship. There is no evidence that the external validity of this study should be questioned, it is clear that the study can be applied to a separate sample group and produce similar results. How to cite Quatitative Research Article Critique, Essays
Thursday, December 5, 2019
Question: Discuss about the Role Of Job Satisfaction In An Organization. Answer: Introduction Job satisfaction has now become an integral component of any organization thriving towards success. Job satisfaction leads to employee retention, high work productivity and reinforces a positive environment at the workplace. The organizations have been struggling to make their employees happy and achieve high levels of job satisfaction among the employees. The major causes of job dissatisfaction include low salary, limited career growth, lack of interest and poor management. Thus, job dissatisfaction has become one of the major challenges of the organizations due to which they are faced with the problems of high attrition rate, low levels of performance and decreased work productivity. In order to make the employees happy, the organizations have introduced different strategies and tactics including training development program, employee engagement program and employee empowerment in order instill motivation within the employees to work for the organization with full zeal and passion . The report aims to discuss the role of job satisfaction for employees working in an organization by reflecting upon one of my job experiences. This would be done by applying different theories of motivation including Maslows hierarchy of needs, two-factor theory of Herzberg and expectancy theory. The application of these theories would help to evaluate the reason for leaving the job. Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction Job satisfaction is the level of contentment attained by an employee working in an organization. The level of job satisfaction is based on the perception of the employee. The factors that could influence job satisfaction include salary, level of communication within the organization and the ability of the employee. A person has some level of emotional attachment o the job that is called affective job satisfaction. The level of satisfaction that an employee feels with some aspects of the job is cognitive job satisfaction. Almost every organization faces the challenge of measuring job satisfaction because definition of satisfaction is different for different individuals. The job satisfaction level of employees has a huge impact on their performances due to which it is one of the crucial elements that leads to efficiency. On the other hand, most of the employees are dissatisfied with their jobs that can have a negative impact on the company. There are some employees who consistently look for better opportunities and some employees prefer to stay. These employees are not at all motivated to work due to their negative attitudes that could influence companys bottom line. It is the responsibility of the managers to handle these types of employees through their observation skills. The managers must thrive to identify the root cause of the problem in order to resolve the problem. The main causes of job dissatisfaction are underpaid, limited career growth and advancement, lack of interest and poor management (Chang and Lee, 2007). Low salary is one of the chief causes of job dissatisfaction (Roelen, Koopmans and Groothoff, 2008). The employees face the challenge when they are unable to fulfill their basic needs and requirement by the salary. This may even cause stress among the employees and leads to dissatisfaction among the employees. The employees are also dissatisfied because of limited career growth and advancement within the organization. This is because the employees feel that they are stuck at a certain job position and are thus, less motivated to work (Schermerhorn, 2011). The employees feel more valued when they are included under the long term plans of the organization and are being promoted to higher levels. The employees may also be dissatisfied with their work due lack of interest and monotonous work (Schermerhorn, 2011). When the employees do not find their work challenging and engaging they begun to feel boredom and are very lowly motivated to pursue their job. Further, poor management is another cause of the problem. The role of the managers is motivate employees, involve into planning, organization and controlling functions of the organization (Chang and Lee, 2007). When managers are unable to fulfill their roles and responsibilities effectively leading to poor leadership, the performance of the employees tend to decrease (Chang and Lee, 2007). Job Role, Tenure And Organization: Job Role I worked as an assistant manager for one of the hotels in the country. My job was to represent the hotel with every guest interaction and ensure the safety and security of guests, staff and hotel property. I also handled and managed the complaints of the guests to ensure the highest level of customer satisfaction. My role also extended to manage the shifts of the employees to maintain the quality of the services. I also assisted VIPs to ensure that they receive the highest levels of services of hotel. My job role also comprised of coaching, leading and mentoring the staff to provide outstanding services to the customers. When an issue arises in a hotel, it must be handled effectively and must be handed over to the next shift to facilitate continuity of services. Thus, my job role included providing satisfactory services to the client and ensures that the services delivered were of highest quality. This required handling of front office staff and housekeeping staff of the hotel. My job also required me to focus on the VIPs and special guests and I used to personally manage their affairs to ensure the highest level of services. I frequently conducted staff meetings to ensure the consistency of the services and motivate the employees. I was also supervised and guided by the senior manager of the hotel about the events that were to be handled and managed. I coordinated with both my senior manager and staff members to ensure that any event was handled and managed effectively and services were accurate and on time. Tenure I joined the hotel after I completed my graduation and worked with the organization for almost a year. I joined the hotel as an intern in the beginning and was designated the role of assistant manager after completing a tenure of six months. I received extensive training for my six months duration that helped me to develop my skills and abilities that were required for the position of assistant manager. After demonstrating my competency and hard work, I was promoted by the organization. I worked for around six months as an assistant manager for the organization. After six months working as an assistant manager, I witnessed some scenarios that made compelled me to leave the organization. Within a month after I was designated as assistant manager, I witnessed dissatisfied employees of the hotel. The staff members were not motivated for the work because they were subject to difficult circumstances that were unbearable. The clients would shatter them to pieces that would break them apart. They even had to work when they were going through a severe disease or having trouble with their family. I requested my supervisor that we needed to show some leniency on the front office and housekeeping staff but the manager did not respond. I was constantly facing one or the other situation during my tenure and was faced with severe ethical dilemma. After I completed my five months as an assistant manager, there was an event being conducted in the hotel and one of our chief guests was invited in the hotel. Now the guest was unsatisfied with the room service and called me up after he has been waiting for his order for around an hour. I rushed to his room and tried to explain him that since the hotel was loaded with guests thats why the service got delayed and yet he was scolding the staff for this behavior. After getting annoyed and furious, he requested me to fire the employee and when I resisted, he tried to call my senior manager. In order to control the situation, I shouted at the employee who was already struggling with his family problems. After this scenario, I left the organization as I could no more continue to torture the grieving employees. Organization Vulcan is a three star rated hotel in Sydney that offers boutique accommodation at very affordable prices to the customers. The hotel is located nearby station and is located in the inner city area of Ultimo NSW (Vulcan, 2017). The hotel provides almost all the basic facilities to the customers including breakfast, laundry and wireless internet along with the facility of fax and email (Vulcan, 2017). The hotel has a great landscaped courtyard that has a peaceful environment and the customers can enjoy their glass of wine with their favorite book. The room facility offered by the hotel includes studio apartment, superior twin, superior room, standard twin, superior queen and King single (Vulcan, 2017). The rooms are luxurious and spacious with cozy balcony and plenty of storage. The travelers looking for complete privacy and comfortable accommodation can easily prefer to visit this hotel. Motivation Theories And Analysis In order to gain a deep insight of the issue, three theories of motivation would be applied. Vrooms expectancy motivation theory states that the performance of an employee depends on individual factors including personality, knowledge, skills, experience and abilities. According to Vroom, even if an employer has fulfilled all the needs of the employees, there could be some employees who are not satisfied because of their difference in perceptions. The theory has three components including expectancy, instrumentality and valence (Chiang and Jang, 2008). In Vulcan hotel, there was no process of goal setting for the employees (expectancy), and reward system (instrumentality) and value for reward (valence). Instead, the employees were always faced with criticism, sometimes even front of the clients that demotivated them. The employees were never rewarded for the efforts they contributed for the organization. According to Hertzberg theory of motivation, there are two factors for employee motivation including motivator factors and hygiene factors. Motivator factors include giving employee recognition or career progression and any other factor that leads to employee satisfaction (Lundberg, Gudmundson and Andersson, 2009). Hygiene factors include salary, company policies and other basic amenities without which the employee would be not be willing not work (Miner, 2015). The hygiene factors were there in the organization but there was a lack of motivator factors that lead to employee dissatisfaction. The employees for were never given any recognition for their work and were not even entitled to career advancement. According to Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, there are five levels of needs and the basic needs must be satisfied first in order to attain higher needs. Physiological needs include the most basic need for survival including food, water and shelter (McGuire, 2012). Safety needs include financial security, health security and personal security (Pichere, 2015). Love needs require friendship and relationship with the colleagues (McGuire, 2012). Esteem is the respect from others. Self-actualization is the ability to achieve something by utilizing full potential and strength (McGuire, 2012). The theory states that the employees need to be continuously motivated in order to reach the higher levels of hierarchy needs (Block, 2011). In Vulcan Hotel, the senior management never took initiative to motivate the employees. The physiological and safety needs were satisfied but no efforts were made for their love needs that demotivated the employees. Thus, the attrition rate of the organization was ver y high and the performance of the employees was very low. Conclusion After successfully completing the report, it can be construed that job satisfaction is one of the most essential factor of any organization. The organization must make consistent efforts to motivate the employee to ensure that they are completely satisfied with their job. Job dissatisfaction leads to high attrition rate, low performance and ultimately low productivity of the organization. The all three theories of motivation expectancy theory, Hertzberg theory and Maslow Hierarchy of Needs imply that employees motivation has become an integral component of an organization. The employees seek recognition, appreciation and rewards for the hard efforts and contribution they make towards organization. The case study of Vulcan Hotel clearly demonstrates that if an organization fails to deploy effective process to motivate employees, then it has face severe consequences. The organization was faced with the challenge of high attrition rate and low productivity. References Block, M. (2011). Maslows hierarchy of needs. InEncyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development(pp. 913-915). US: Springer. Chang, S.C. and Lee, M.S. (2007). A study on relationship among leadership, organizational culture, the operation of learning organization and employees' job satisfaction.The learning organization,14(2), pp.155-185. Chiang, C.F. and Jang, S.S. (2008). An expectancy theory model for hotel employee motivation.International Journal of Hospitality Management,27(2), pp.313-322. Lundberg, C., Gudmundson, A. and Andersson, T.D. (2009). Herzberg's Two-Factor Theory of work motivation tested empirically on seasonal workers in hospitality and tourism.Tourism management,30(6), pp.890-899. McGuire, K.J. (2012). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. An introduction. Munich: GRIN Verlag. Miner, J.B. (2015).Organizational behavior 1: Essential theories of motivation and leadership. London: Routledge. Pichere, P. (2015). Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs:Understand the True Foundations of Human Motivation. Belgium: 50Minutes.com.Roelen, C.A., Koopmans, P.C. and Groothoff, J.W., 2008. Which work factors determine job satisfaction?. Work,30(4), pp.433-439.Schermerhorn, J.R., Osborn, J.R.N., Uhl-Bien, M, and Hunt, J.G. (2011). Organizational Behavior. US: John Wiley Sons. Vulcan Hotel. (2017). Rooms. Vulcan Hotel. Available at: https://vulcanhotel.com.au/rooms/ [Accessed Online 30 April 2017].
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Lau-Tzu We turn clay to make a vessel; But it is on the space where there is nothing That the utility of the vessel depends. Lao-Tzu 1 When we fill the jug, the pouring that fills it flows into the empty jug. The emptiness, the void, is what does the vessel's holding. The empty space, this nothing of the jug, is what the jug is as the holding vessel. . . . From start to finish the potter takes hold of the impalpable void and brings it forth as the container in the shape of the containing vessel. Martin Heidegger 2 These twenty six ewers by Peter Beasecker are a sustained meditation and inquiry within the medium of their facture on the form of the ewer. This also is a meditation and an inquiry on the form of the ewer, in another medium. The dialectical oppositions engaged by contemporary clay works--craft and art traditions, utilitarian and aesthetic objects, active use and contemplative regard, vessel and sculpture, surface and form, decoration and depth, concept and process--ramify in both the medium of their facture and the medium of this discourse. In both work in clay and in discursive engagement of those works, these terms deeply implicate their opposites. Form is a matter not simply of shape, but of the structure of the ewer as such, the necessary conditions of ewer-ness, a particular case of the vessel-form. The vessel-form, as Heidegger notes, can be as quotidian as a jug for holding something: The jug is a thing as a vessel--it can hold something. To be sure, this container has to be made. But its being made by the potter in no way constitutes what is peculiar and proper to the jug insofar as it is qua jug. The jug is not a vessel because it was made; rather, the jug had to be made because it is this holding vessel. 3 The jug is, and is thus a thing. The holdingness of the jug is its whatness, constituting the jug as a vessel. The particularities of its vesselness constitute the vessel as a ewer, and indeed as this ewer, with these characteristics. Juxtaposing several things together is to invite their comparison. Beasecker's ewers arrayed on shelves manifest their similarities and differences, eliciting comparison. Each of these ewers is a token within the type 'ewer'. The type is the universal, the class of things; the token is the particular instance, a member of the class. 4 Members of the class 'ewer' notwithstanding, each of these works is an individual, in a sense analogous to the application of the term to persons. The indiviudality of these pieces extends beyond the status of all artworks as quasi subjects:5 it is manifested by the inflections of form, evoking resonance with the gesture of the body. Variations within a type, these works are also variations from the type 'ewer' and variations on the type 'vessel'. Consequently, this essay is of necessity an exercise in interpreting the variorum. 6 The traditional type ewer is a wide-mouthed pitcher or jug, typically with a narrow neck, more or less bulbous body tapering and then swelling intto a relatively wide flairing foot. As the derivation of ewer from aquaria suggests, the ewer is traditionally a vessel for bring and pouring water for hand washing. 7 The general form of the ewer is similar to the classical Greek oinochoe, wine jug. Beasecker's interpretations of the ewer-form maintain the neck of the ewer, which in Beasecker's pieces assumes the function of an absent handle. Beasecker's pieces exchange the wide mouth, extended into a lip for pouring, of the traditional ewer-type for a thin, attenuated spout, emerging not as a modification of the mouth opening from a neck but rather extending directly from the body of the vessel. Freed of the necessity of pouring, the mouth can assume any of several shapes, suitable for filling the vessel; relative to the spout, the mouth is proportionately large. The result of this seperation and concomittant specialization of function is a vessel quicker to fill than to empty. This potential for relative ease of filling in comparison to slowness of pouring out emphasizes the function of the vessel as container, holder of liquid. To receive, to hold, and to pour out slowly is to concentrate attention on these functions. That which performs these several functions is a thing, a type of thing termed vessel. But any number of variations,
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Senior Citizen Driving 1. One day, not long ago...I came out of my house to leave for work. On the way to my car I noticed the little old lady across the street walking to here car with what appeared to be a phone book. To my surprise she laid the phone book down onto the seat and proceeded to climb in...I then decided to watch this rare occasion, since she only drives once a month or so. Well after a few minutes, she finally got her giant Cadillac started and began to back out of her drive way. She was backing up with one wheel one the drive way and one on the grass.... I felt this was a little humorous, and decided to watch her drive down the street. She cruised down the street at a top speed of 5 mph! After watching this I decided to go back into my house for a few more minutes just to be sure she was out of the area. The old people driving today pose a definite threat to everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. I recommend that we impose regulations that work to cease allowing old people to drive after they are unable to think for themselves. 2. Body Concern, particularly among "younger" drivers, about the number of "older" drivers on the roads and their driving abilities is already growing. Statistics, when calculated based on all people injured or killed in traffic crashes, may indicate that older drivers are at a disproportionate risk for becoming involved in fatal crashes. For example nationally, in 1995 senior citizens accounted for: Ã · 5% of all people injured in traffic crashes; Ã · 13% of all traffic fatalities; Ã · 13% of all vehicle occupant fatalities; and Ã · 18% of all pedestrian fatalities. Statistics show that in two-vehicle fatal crashes involving an older and a younger driver, it is 3.1 times as likely that the vehicle driven by the older person will be struck. In 27% of these two-vehicle fatal crashes the older driver was turning left. A. According to the Highway Traffic Safety Commission, Collision rates for ... Free Essays on Senior Citizens Free Essays on Senior Citizens Senior Citizen Driving 1. One day, not long ago...I came out of my house to leave for work. On the way to my car I noticed the little old lady across the street walking to here car with what appeared to be a phone book. To my surprise she laid the phone book down onto the seat and proceeded to climb in...I then decided to watch this rare occasion, since she only drives once a month or so. Well after a few minutes, she finally got her giant Cadillac started and began to back out of her drive way. She was backing up with one wheel one the drive way and one on the grass.... I felt this was a little humorous, and decided to watch her drive down the street. She cruised down the street at a top speed of 5 mph! After watching this I decided to go back into my house for a few more minutes just to be sure she was out of the area. The old people driving today pose a definite threat to everyone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s safety. I recommend that we impose regulations that work to cease allowing old people to drive after they are unable to think for themselves. 2. Body Concern, particularly among "younger" drivers, about the number of "older" drivers on the roads and their driving abilities is already growing. Statistics, when calculated based on all people injured or killed in traffic crashes, may indicate that older drivers are at a disproportionate risk for becoming involved in fatal crashes. For example nationally, in 1995 senior citizens accounted for: Ã · 5% of all people injured in traffic crashes; Ã · 13% of all traffic fatalities; Ã · 13% of all vehicle occupant fatalities; and Ã · 18% of all pedestrian fatalities. Statistics show that in two-vehicle fatal crashes involving an older and a younger driver, it is 3.1 times as likely that the vehicle driven by the older person will be struck. In 27% of these two-vehicle fatal crashes the older driver was turning left. A. According to the Highway Traffic Safety Commission, Collision rates for ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Advertising Appeals to Our Imperfect Lives & to Our desire to satisfy ourselves - Essay Example The belief that people hold, that their decisions cannot be affected by the media and the advertisements, makes media very strong because when a person purchases a product they are convinced that they really need it. However, in most instances, this is not true. The average individual in the American society sees very many adverts per day. These adverts are available in almost all corners of life ranging from home where most part of the television is advertisements to the office where an individual doing research on the Internet is exposed to many more adverts in this media that has become more pronounced in the contemporary world. The ads that are directed towards the female population range from beauty, fashion, and diets. The companies undertaking the advertising usually do enough market research to know which side of the society can be exploited to the advantage of increased sales volume and market share for these businesses. The adverts are projected towards ensuring that the cu stomers would be pleased to the point of thinking that their lives would become perfect if they purchased certain goods. If the media does not find a need to exploit, they can create some to make people think that they need the product being advocated for. Creation of an area to exploit makes people think that they have a problem or even make them doubt themselves. This would definitely prompt people to try the product to see whether the perceived problem would be eliminated. This is during the quest to make lives perfect, which according to people, can be achieved through elimination of the problems that cause the imperfection. The need to create doubts in people is usually the result of intense competition that has been taking place in the modern world between the main players in the business sector. However, during most instances, the ads are designed to exploit the existing needs that people cannot live without. For instance, most magazines intended for the male population have